A common theme in the Space, Accelerator, Ground, Aviation and Nuclear (SAGAN) industries is operation in harmful radiation environments. The deleterious effects of radiation can lead to performance degradation, or even catastrophic failure. While the radiation environments in each SAGAN sector will differ (in terms of particle types, fluxes and energies) the underlying physics of particles interacting with matter is well understood and fully implemented in high fidelity Monte Carlo transport codes such as FLUKA and Geant4.
While Monte Carlo simulation and modelling offers a cost effective method for studying the effects of radiation and mitigation strategies, a final solution or design will often require testing and qualification at irradiation facilities. The radiation quantities of interest are similar across the SAGAN sectors (e.g. total ionising dose, atomic displacement damage, single event effects). This is why the same irradiation test facilities are typically used across the SAGAN industries, such as investigating ionising dose damage using cobalt 60 gamma sources.
Radiation environments at the Large Hadron Collider cover a wide spectrum of particle species and energies, as shown in the figure below. The effects of radiation are similar to those seen in the other industries and knowledge transfer between the sectors is one of the goals of SAGAN Radiation.